Author(s): Bruce Schneier

ISBN: 0471128457

Publication Date: 01/01/96

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*The Chess Grandmaster Problem*

Here’s how Alice, who doesn’t even know the rules to chess, can defeat a grandmaster. (This is sometimes called the Chess Grandmaster Problem.) She challenges both Gary Kasparov and Anatoly Karpov to a game, at the same time and place, but in separate rooms. She plays white against Kasparov and black against Karpov. Neither grandmaster knows about the other.

Karpov, as white, makes his first move. Alice records the move and walks into the room with Kasparov. Playing white, she makes the same move against Kasparov. Kasparov makes his first move as black. Alice records the move, walks into the room with Karpov, and makes the same move. This continues, until she wins one game and loses the other, or both games end in a draw.

In reality, Kasparov is playing Karpov and Alice is simply acting as the middleman, mimicking the moves of each grandmaster on the other’s board. However, if neither Karpov nor Kasparov knows about the other’s presence, each will be impressed with Alice’s play.

This kind of fraud can be used against zero-knowledge proofs of identity [485,120]. While Alice is proving her identity to Mallory, Mallory can simultaneously prove to Bob that he is Alice.

*The Mafia Fraud*

When discussing his zero-knowledge identification protocol, Adi Shamir [1424] said: “I could go to a Mafia-owned store a million successive times and they will still not be able to misrepresent themselves as me.”

Here’s how the Mafia can. Alice is eating at Bob’s Diner, a Mafia-owned restaurant. Carol is shopping at Dave’s Emporium, an expensive jewelry store. Bob and Carol are both members of the Mafia and are communicating by a secret radio link. Alice and Dave are unaware of the fraud.

At the end of Alice’s meal, when she is ready to pay and prove her identity to Bob, Bob signals Carol that the fraud is ready to begin. Carol chooses some expensive diamonds and gets ready to prove her identity to Dave. Now, as Alice proves her identity to Bob, Bob radios Carol and Carol performs the same protocol with Dave. When Dave asks a question in the protocol, Carol radios the question back to Bob, and Bob asks it of Alice. When Alice answers, Bob radios the correct answer to Carol. Actually, Alice is just proving her identity to Dave, and Bob and Carol are simply sitting in the middle of the protocol passing messages back and forth. When the protocol finishes, Alice has proved herself to Dave and has purchased some expensive diamonds (which Carol disappears with).

*The Terrorist Fraud*

If Alice is willing to collaborate with Carol, they can also defraud Dave. In this protocol, Carol is a well-known terrorist. Alice is helping her enter the country. Dave is the immigration officer. Alice and Carol are connected by a secret radio link.

When Dave asks Carol questions as part of the zero-knowledge protocol, Carol radios them back to Alice, who answers them herself. Carol recites these answers to Dave. In reality, Alice is proving her identity to Dave, with Carol acting as a communications path. When the protocol finishes, Dave thinks that Carol is Alice and lets her into the country. Three days later, Carol shows up at some government building with a minivan full of explosives.

*Suggested Solutions*

Both the Mafia and Terrorist frauds are possible because the conspirators can communicate via a secret radio. One way to prevent this requires all identifications to take place inside Faraday cages, which block all electromagnetic radiation. In the terrorist example, this assures immigration officer Dave that Carol was not receiving her answers from Alice. In the Mafia example, Bob could simply build a faulty Faraday cage in his restaurant, but jeweler Dave would have a working one; Bob and Carol would not be able to communicate. To solve the Chess Grandmaster Problem, Alice should be forced to sit in her seat until the end of a game.

Thomas Beth and Yvo Desmedt proposed another solution, one using accurate clocks [148]. If each step in the protocol must take place at a given time, no time would be available for the conspirators to communicate. In the Chess Grandmaster Problem, if every move in each game must be made as a clock strikes one minute, then Alice will have no time to run from room to room. In the Mafia story, Bob and Carol will have no time to pass questions and answers to one another.

*The Multiple Identity Fraud*

There are other possible abuses to zero-knowledge proofs of identity, also discussed in [485,120]. In some implementations, there is no check when an individual registers a public key. Hence, Alice can have several private keys and, therefore, several identities. This can be a great help if she wants to commit tax fraud. Alice can also commit a crime and disappear. First, she creates and publishes several identities. One of them she doesn’t use. Then, she uses that identity once and commits a crime so that the person who identifies her is the witness. Then, she immediately stops using that identity. The witness knows the identity of the person who committed the crime, but if Alice never uses that identity again—she’s untraceable.

To prevent this, there has to be some mechanism by which each person has only one identity. In [120] the authors suggest the bizarre idea of tamperproof babies who are impossible to clone and contain a unique number as part of their genetic code. They also suggested having each baby apply for an identity at birth. (Actually, the parents would have to do this as the baby would be otherwise occupied.) This could easily be abused; parents could apply for multiple identities at the child’s birth. In the end, the uniqueness of an individual is based on trust.

*Renting Passports*

Alice wants to travel to Zaire, but that government won’t give her a visa. Carol offers to rent her identity to Alice. (Bob offered first, but there were some obvious problems.) Carol sells Alice her private key and Alice goes off to Zaire pretending to be Carol.

Carol has not only been paid for her identity, but now she has a perfect alibi. She commits a crime while Alice is in Zaire. “Carol” has proved her identity in Zaire; how could she commit a crime back home?

Of course, Alice is free to commit crimes as well. She does so either before she leaves or after she returns, near Carol’s home. First she identifies herself as Carol (she has Carol’s private key, so she can easily do that), then she commits a crime and runs away. The police will come looking for Carol. Carol will claim she rented her identity to Alice, but who would believe such a nonsensical story?

The problem is that Alice isn’t really proving her identity; she is proving that she knows a piece of secret information. It is the link between that information and the person it belongs to that is being abused. The tamperproof baby solution would protect against this type of fraud, as would a police state where all citizens would have to prove their identity very frequently (at the end of each day, at each street corner, etc.). Biometric methods—fingerprints, retinal scanning, voiceprints, and so on—may help solve this problem.

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